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Be10 cosmogenic dating Com dec, any amount will be evaluated by cosmogenic testing of puma punku. Cosmogenic nuclide dating How can the effective date: The vast majority of the building material at Pumapunku consists of relatively small and easily handled stones, although many of the most famous are megalithic. The absurd numbers like tons come from much earlier estimates, and have long since been corrected.
The Non-Mystery of Pumapunku
We do not claim to know how the heavy lifting and exquisite masonry was accomplished at Pumapunku, but that's a far cry from saying we believe the Tiwanaku were incapable of it. We simply don't have a record of what tools and techniques they used. All around the world are examples of stonemasonry from the period that is equally impressive. The Greek Parthenon, for example, was built a thousand years before Pumapunku, and yet nobody invokes aliens as the only explanation for its great beauty and decorative detailing that more than rivals Pumapunku's angles and cuts.
At about the same time, the Persians constructed Persepolis with its superlative Palace of Darius, featuring details that are highly comparable to Pumapunku.
Cosmogenic dating of megaliths at puma punku
Stonemasons in India cut the Udayagiri Caves with megalithic doorways that are very similar to those in Pumapunku. The Tiwanaku did magnificent work, but by no means was it inexplicably superior to what can be found throughout the ancient world. It is unnecessary to invoke aliens to explain the structures. Curiously, if you do an Internet search for Pumapunku, you'll find it almost universally, and quite casually, referred to as a "port". At least, this is what it's called on the paranormal web pages, which make up the overwhelming bulk of Pumapunku information on the Internet.
In fact, it's not a port, and it never was a port. To anyone doing even the most basic research or visiting the area, it's a fairly bizarre assertion, considering that Pumapunku was in the middle of a vast farming nation of , people. Nor are Tiwanaku's structures in locations where they could serve as a port.
Pumapunku is just one of several stepped platform constructions that have been excavated at Tiwanaku.
If you look at them from above, they're simply squarish enclosures scattered about the area. If you imagine water filling the region — let's pretend just high enough to cover the ground but not the enclosures themselves — then each of these "ports" would be an island unto itself, amid a sea of knee-deep water too shallow to be navigable. That is, except for the Semi-Subterranean Temple, which being recessed into the ground, would have been underwater.
But even that imaginary scenario presumes that the lake could ever reach Tiwanaku. Has this always been the case? At least since the last ice age, yes. Because the sediment at the lake's bottom has been accumulating for some 25, years, it's one of the best places to get data about Earth's climate history, and so it's been extensively studied. The paleohydrology of Lake Titicaca is thoroughly known. Currently, the water is at its overflow level. This level has fluctuated about 5 meters in the past century.
During the past 4, years, it has dropped as much as 20 meters during drought periods. The maximum it's ever been is about 7 meters above overflow level, which would still locate the shore many kilometers away from Tiwanaku's suburbs and farms. Most of these same paranormal sources that refer to Pumapunku as a port also state that the ancient shoreline is still visible along the surrounding hills, albeit tilted at a strange angle.
Ancient lake levels are often visible in such a way — they're quite prominent throughout Death Valley where I often visit, for example. But it makes no sense for Lake Titicaca. The lake would spill off the edge of the plain before it could get as high as Tiwanaku; and there's certainly been no tectonic activity in that time that could have tilted the hills, or mysteriously tilted the hills yet left the Tiwanaku structures level. Finally, one other feature at Pumapunku is said to have the archaeologists baffled: Carved figures, said to represent an elephant relative called a Cuvieronius, and a hoofed mammal called a toxodon.
These both went extinct in the region around 15, years ago, and so some paranormalists have dated Pumapunku to 15, years, apparently based on this alone. When you hear that an elephant is carved there, it certainly does give you pause, because an elephant is hard to mistake. However, when you look at a picture of what's claimed to be the elephant , this becomes less surprising.
Tiwanaku art was highly stylized, much like what we're accustomed to seeing from the Mayans or the Aztecs. It's actually the heads of two crested Andean Condors facing each other neck to neck, and their necks and crests constitute what some have compared to the tusks and ears of an elephant's face. The image of the toxodon is known only from rough sketches of a sculpture discovered in , and so it's a drawing of indirect evidence of an artist's interpretation of an unknown subject.
It looks to me like a generic quadruped. Pig, dog, rat, toxodon, name it. So once again, we have an accomplishment by ancient craftsmen whom some paranormalists have attempted to discredit by attributing their work to aliens. This is not only irrational, it's a non-sequitur conclusion to draw from the observations. Most people don't know how to intricately cut stones because those are skills we haven't needed for a long time — we've had easier ways to make better structures for a long time. But this argument from ignorance — that just because we don't know how to do it, nobody else could have figured it out either — is an insufficient explanation.
Simply say that you don't know, instead of invoking aliens.
This is not only the truth, it accurately represents the findings of science so far; and perhaps most importantly, it leaves the credit for this wonderful contribution to humanity where it belongs: Please contact us with any corrections or feedback. Skeptoid Media, 20 Apr Identity and Power in the Ancient Andes: Tiwanaku Cities Through Time.
The Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy.